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ETYMOLOGY OP LOCAL NAMES.                                    343
only the letter r, which we see appearing as a final in such words as K&mar, Sahar,
Udhar, and Surir. Of these, Kamar (for Kam-ra) is probably an offshoot from the
neighbouring town of Ham-ban in Bharatpnr territory a famous place of Yalsh-
nava pilgrimage; while Sahar and Udhar must have been named after their
respective founders, who in the one case is known to have been called Udho^ or
Udhan, and in the other was probably some Sabha. In Sarir} which presents
peculiar difficulties, we fortunately are not left to conjecture. For a local
tradition attests that the town was once called Sngriv-ka Eiera. The resemb-
lance between the two names is slight that the people on the spot and the
tmphilological mind generally would not recognize any connection between
them ; but according to rules already quoted Sugriv-ra would pass naturally
Into Surir, and the fact that it has done so is a strong confirmation of the
truth of the rules.
Another particle that is commonly used for investing substantives with a
possessive force is wdla^ or ward. Of this,, as a component in a village name7 we
have two illustrations in the district, riz.j Pipalwara and Bhadanwara.* No satis-
factory attempt has hitherto been made to explain the derivation and primary
meaning either of this affix wdlay or of the somewhat less common lidrd,
which is used in a precisely similar way. I take the latter to represent the
Sanskrit dJidra (from the root dhn) in the sense of l holding' or * having/
as in the compounds chJiattr&dhdra, l having an umbrella,' danda-dMr^ c hav-
ing a stick.* The elision of the d is quite according to rule? as in baJiira^4 deaf,*
for badJiwa. Wtildj agaiE3 is I consider beyond any doubt the Sanskrit pdla, with
Hie same signification of £ keeping or * having.' The substitution of v for p
is prescribed by YararacM in Sutra II., 15, who gives as an example the
Prakrit *doo for the Sanskrit sopa, * a curse.5 Thus we have from go-pala^€ a
cow-keeper/ gmcdla^ and finally gwal®; from chaupdl the alternative form
chauwdrdj and from teto-pala, f the governor of a fort,' the familiar kotwdL
For the formation of adjectives that denote possession, the affix most
" frequently employed, botli in Sanskrit and modern Hindustani,, is L Thus
from dJianj * wealth,' comes rfAant, wealthy and from mdla, * a floral wreath*
comes mdlij f a florist.* Dr. Hunter, with much perverted ingenuity, has gone
out of his way to suggest that the latter are an aboriginal and non-Aryan race
and " take their name from the tribal term for man, maley from, which many
* It ia carious to find in the English of the 9th century a word "wira* used precisely in the
same way. Thus the Mefsewara, or marsh folk, were the dwellers in the reclaimed flftta of
Komney marsh: while the Cantwaia inhabited the Cunt, or *>pen aplaad which still gives it*
mmme to the county of Kent.